I take it you've run into that unfortunately not so rare but infectious creature that is called a "stupid user"?
(IE: those who have a troubling habit of deleting everything but the files they should be messing with!)
Unfortunately no --- not really any particularly easy way of doing what you ask.
You could "chattr +i" certain files but if you made a habit of doing that across accounts, that could be very messy, hard to track, and in the case of some files and folders especially with system areas like mail, you'd actually break the accounts doing that so the use of "chattr +i" would really be limited and generally not recommended.
Unfortunately, the very best solution and only real practical viable solution is keep good backups. Make sure your server is configured to keep decent daily, weekly, and monthly backups and preferably an extra backup on a remote location. That way if a user's brain falls out suddenly and goes "splat" all over the keyboard as so often that seems to happen (
), you'll at least be able to quickly repair the account without having to do a whole lot of manual work.
If the user loses up to 24 hours to the last most recent backup, well maybe that'll be a lesson to teach them to be a bit more careful with what they are doing for next time --- at least they wouldn't lose anything longer time than that!